Types of computer memory | Explain computer memory and benefits

Friends, you must be aware of memory that it is very important to have memory whether it is a human or a computer machine-human who sees what he thinks and speaks, it is all stored in memory. He uses memory. Man cannot do anything without memory. Similarly, computer memory also works. To store or calculate data and instruction. Memory is used in all. Memory is known by the same name in humans but in computer memory, it is of two types Primary memory and Secondary memory It is also called a memory unit which is divided into 2 parts Primary and secondary memory.

Types of computer memory

Memory is required in computers to store data and instructions Computer memory is of two basic types – Primary memory and Secondary memory. The main characteristics of the main memory are:
  •         These are semiconductor memories and know as main memory.
  •         These are usually volatile memory.
  •         Data is lost in the case power is switched off.
  •         Faster than secondary memory.
  •         A computer can not run without primary memory.
Types of computer memory
Types of computer memory
 

Types of computer memory | Computer memory its Types

there are many types of Computer memory. primary or secondary memory.

There are two types of primary memory Volatile memory and non Volatile memory

Volatile Computer memory:
Primary memory is called volatile memory in which data and instruction can be kept for some time. RAM is the type of volatile memory.

RAM(Random Access Memory)
  •         RAM is the fastest memory.
  •         RAM is a volatile memory because it loses its contents when there is a power failure in the computer system.
  •         RAM is available in very small quantities of up to 32GB
  •         Ram chips can be both reads from and written to by the computer. 
  •         You can speed up your computer work with higher RAM like 8GB or higher. There are two types.
Computer memory and its Types
Types of computer memory – RAM
SRAM (Static RAM)
DRAM (Dynamic RAM)
SRAM (static random access memory)
•  SRAM does not need to be refreshed. Because data stored permanently.
1. SRAM is static while DRAM is dynamic
2. SRAM is faster and costly compared to DRAM
3. SRAM consumes less power than DRAM. Because does not need to be refreshed.
4. SRAM uses more transistors
compared to DRAM
5. SRAM is more expensive than DRAM.
         6. SRAM memories are used in particular for the processor’s cache memory. 
DRAM(Dynamic random-access memory)
  •           DRAM requires the data to be refreshed repeatedly.
  •         They are used essentially for the computer’s main memory.
  •         DRAM consumes More power than SRAM. Because need to be refreshed repeatedly.
 
EX:-PC, Laptop.
 
Non Volatile Computer memory
Non-volatile memory is memory in which data is stored permanently, such as ROM read-only memory is an example of non-volatile memory.
ROM(Read Only Memory)

 

 A  special type of RAM, called read-only memory, is a non-volatile memory chip in which data is stored permanently and can not be changed and destroyed. In fact, storing data permanently into this kind of memory is called ” burning in the data” because data in such memory is stored by using fuse links. Once a fuse link is burnt, it is permanent. Data stored in a ROM chip can only be read and used- they can not be changed. This is the reason why it is called read-only memory (ROM).    

The main characteristics of the ROM are:
  •         The data which is stored in ROM is permanent.
  •          The ROM can only read the data by CPU but can’t be changed and destroy.
  •          ROM is a non-volatile memory because it will not lose its contents when there is a power failure in the computer system.
  •          BIOS (Basic Input Output System). It is the first software run by the computer when you turned on your computer system.
  •          Hardware related information stored in the BIOS. and BIOS work in the ROM.
download
PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory)
There are two types of Read-Only Memory (ROM) Manufacturing programmed and user-programmed. A Manufacturing programmed ROM is one in which data is burnt in by the manufacturer of the electronic equipment in which it is used.
For example, personal computer manufacture may store the system boot program permanently in a ROM chip located on the motherboard of each PC manufactured by it. Similarly printer.
  •         PROM was first developed by Wen Tsing Chow in 1956 and a good example of a PROM is a computer BIOS in early computers. Today, PROM in computers has been replaced by EEPROM.
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)
Once information is stored in a ROM or PROM chip it can not be altered. EPROM overcomes this problem. It is possible to erase the information stored in an EPROM chip and the chip can be reprogrammed to store new information.
  • EPROM is a non-volatile memory.
  • If exposed to ultraviolet light an EPROM can be reprogrammed if needed, but otherwise does not accept or save any new data.
  • that was invented byDov Frohman in 1971.
  •  Today, EPROM chips are not used in computers and have been replaced by EEPROM chips.

EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)

     •  EEPROM is a PROM that can be erased and reprogrammed using an electrical charge.
     •  EEPROM was developed by George Perlegoswhile at Intel in 1978.
     •  this memory remembers data when the power is turned off.

•  EEPROM was a replacement for PROM and EPROM chips.


Secondary Memory:

                 Secondary  Memory is required in computers to store data and instructions for a long period of time, is called Secondary  Memory. As a result, additional memory, called auxiliary memory or secondary storage, is used with most computer systems. Secondary storage is a non-volatile memory.is called Secondary Memory.

The main characteristics are:

  •  These are magnetic and optical memories.
  • It is known as backup memory.
  • It is slower than the primary memory.
  • Data is permanently stored even if power is switched off.
  • It is a non-volatile memory.

1. Hard Disk.

It is a solid, rounded disk or a pack of many disks. Hard drives coated with magnetic materials – each with its own read/write head. Hard disk drives are built into desktops and laptops.It used to store lots of programs and data permanently. It can store more information than a floppy disk. Mostly, the hard disk drive (HDD) is named as C or D or E, etc. following important aspects of a computer system:
 Performance. The hard disk plays a very important role in overall system performance. The speed at which the PC boots up and load programs is directly related to hard disk speed.
 Storage. A bigger capacity hard disk lets you store more programs and data.
 Software. Newer software needs more space and faster hard disks to load it efficiently.

 

Types of computer memory
Types of computer memory – Hard Disk
2. Floppy Disk.
The floppy is made of plastic with a magnetic coating on it. It is round in shape and is covered by a square plastic jacket. These disks are very useful in transferring data from one computer to another. The floppy disk is handled in the Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) named as an A or B drive. Floppies come in three basic sizes like 8-inch,51/4 inch,31/2 inch.
Advantages of using floppy disks:
  •         They allow to copy files from one computer to another.’
  •          They are quite cheap.

Disadvantages of using floppy disks:

  •          They have a limited capacity(graphic files often don’t fit in a disk).
  •          They are relatively slow.
  •           Floppy disks are less popularbecause They are easily damaged.
  •           Have a limited storage capacity in that they can only hold 1.44MB.
Types of computer memory
Types of computer memory
3. Magnetic Tape
Made of a long plastic strip coated with magnetic material,
 It can store lots of data, but this data is slower to access,
One great advantage of magnetic tape is its cheapness.
Magnetic tape uses sequential or serial access to locate data stored on the tape

 

magnetic%2Btap
2. Optical Disk Storage:-Optical mass storage device store bit     values as variation in light reflection. There are two main types,   CD and DVD disks.
1.CD-ROM.
  •          CD-ROM is the short form of Compact Disk-Read Only Memory.
  •        CD-ROM are read-only devices. They can hold in the region of 650 megabytes of data.
  •          They are already filled with data. You can read the data from a CD-ROM, but you cannot modify, deleted, or write new data.
  •           Nowadays a variety of CD-ROM available in the marketing read and write CD. 
  •         Usages: Audio and data storage.
  •           CapacityTypically up to 700 MB (up to 80 minutes audio).
Cd ROM
  •          2.DVD ROM.
  •         DVD stands for Digital Versatile Disk – Read-Only Memory. 
  •          A DVD-ROM drive is similar to a CD-ROM drive in that it uses a combination of lasers and sensors to read the data.
  •         The picture quality is also superior to CD.
  •          The audio quality is superior to CD.
  •          One of the common DVD’s is the single-sided, single-layer disc, capable of holding 4.7 GB.
  •          The double-sided, single-layer disc is capable of holding 9.4 GB.
  •           DVD-R. disc can be read, written, and then erased and rewritten, it is called DVD-RW.
dvd
     3. Blue Ray Disk
  •         Blu-ray is an optical disk format designed to display high definition videos and store large amounts of data.
  •          Blue-ray has a higher data transfer rate 36 Mbps.
  •          Then today’s DVDs which transfer at 10 Mbps.
  •          A single-layer blue-ray disc can hold up to 27 GB.
  •         A double-layer blue-ray disc can store up to 50 GB.
Blu ray
3. Flash Storage:-
Flash memory storage is a form of non-volatile memory that was born out of a combination of the traditional EPROM and E2PROM. That can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Toshiba developed flash memory. and easy to portable.

1.USB Pen Drive.
A pen drive is a portable Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash memory device for storing and transferring audio, video, and data files from a computer.

usb

2.Memory Card.
            A memory card or flash memory card is a solid-state electronic flash memory data storage device used with digital cameras, mobile, computers, telephones, and other electronic devices.

 
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